Markup in the Writing Classroom

Genre: bib

Student id: s23

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Mechanical engineers are involved in nearly all industries that require any kind of problem solving; this ranges anywhere from infrastructure and public works, to pharmaceuticals and product development. There are many engineering companies in Boston in particular that are addressing issues of energy and sustainability. The problem that particularly concerns me is city lighting. Companies like Philips Color Kinetics have taken steps to make Boston more beautiful with the implementation of colorful LEDs in the Prudential Tower and the Zakim Bridge; and even Northeastern has made steps to go greener by installing energy efficient lights from Digital Lumens in many of their campus buildings. Both these companies hire many mechanical engineers to develop efficient LEDs that will last several times longer than a standard incandescent light, will be resilient in bad weather, and will be much easier to install, monitor, and replace. Mechanical engineers are partically well prepared for this kind of work because of their understanding of a range of engineering disciplines and general expertise in material properties and designing for manufacturability. and Right now, many of the less commercialized parts of Boston are still lit by old high pressure sodium lamps(?) which are not nearly as energy efficient, are much less bright, and are more apt to burn out and leave sections of road in the dark. In a city full of families and college students, and with a public transportation system that leaves much to be desired, street lighting can be major issue. Having more street lights that are strategically placed in residential and high traffic areas would increase the communities sense of security and pride in their city.

Ylinen, A., Tahkamo, L., Puolakka, M., & Halonen, L. (2011, July). Road lighting quality, energy efficiency, and mesopic design - LED street lighting case study. General OneFile. Retrieved July 11, 2016.

This article written by doctoral candidates from Aalto University for publication through the Illuminating Engineering Society discusses the practicalities of transitioning to LED lighting for city street lights. The approach to the discussion of LEDs in this journal is very subjective. It discusses mainly the affect that LEDs would have on visibility for drivers and pedestrians alike at night. The effectiveness and energy conscious benefits of LEDs is undeniable, however Ylinen discusses the capital investments that may dissuade a city from transitioning to new street lights. This article goes into cost analysis, installation obstacles, and health impacts of LED street lights. This article is helpful to anyone interested in gaining an in-depth and scientific understanding of how LEDs work and what exactly makes them so much better to look at. It also gives a relatively concise description of the financial benefits a city could reap from installing LEDs. The authors of this article remained impartial and factual.

Welsh, B. (2008). Effects of improved street lighting on crime. Campbell Systematic Reviews. doi:10.4073/csr.2008.13

Authors Brandon Welsh and David Farrington of The Campbell Collaboration report on the collective findings of dozens of bibliographic databases, literature review, and street lighting studies conducted by leading researchers worldwide. They discuss the rigorous selection process they implemented in selecting data worth reporting on and openly disclose their methodological assessment of each study they included. Welsh and Farrington explore thirteen case studies that considered crime rates and safety as relating to street lighting. Their conclusion states that improved lighting in cities has a significant impact in making cities safer both during the day and at night. However, cities will be unlikely to make efforts to add lighting to roads unless there are other incentives, such as traffic safety. This source is beneficial for anyone exploring a more global perspective on the connection between street lighting and decreased crime rates because of the broad range of case studies explored. It is also a good source of examples because of the details Welsh and Farrington included about each of their case studies. This journal article is an effective summary aimed for public officials to gain a concise and inarguable understanding of the effects of street lights on public safety.

Samuels, R. (1995). Defensible Design and Management- University Campuses Final Report. Department of Employment, Education and Training, Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved July 11, 2016.

Samuels conducted an investigation on factors contributing to safety on university campuses for the department of Employment, Education and Training for the Commonwealth of Australia in order to understand what steps could be taken to increase the feelings of security of their students. Although lighting is only one factor that Samuels says contributes to student safety on campus, he expands on it quite heavily. Samuels takes into account the general feeling of safety and security in pedestrians since college campuses are so heavily travelled by walkers, not vehicles. He states, “ The circumstances contributing most to feelings of insecurity, overall, were walking to colleges and poor lighting” (4). Samuels investigates four colleges in Australia where he surveys students and listens to their concerns, adding a human aspect into this study and accentuating how relevant abundant outdoor lighting is to students. Samuels doesn’t actively explore better ways of lighting public areas, but instead focuses on the importance of adding lighting to public spaces. He highlights the characteristics of areas that cause people to be concerned at night. This argument is particularly relevant to students as many of the points Samuels makes are very relatable to Northeastern’s campus.

Tucker, L. E. (2003, March). Safer Stops for Vulnerable Customers. National Center For Transit Research (NCTR). Retrieved July 11, 2016.

Lisa Tucker, a research associate for the National Center for Transit Research (NCTR) wrote this text for the U.S. Department of Transportation in order to express the NCTR’s concerns about the lack of lighting and safety precautions at public bus stops. Tucker takes a professional approach discussing the feelings of insecurity expressed by public transit patrons because of the lack of upkeep of bus stops. The biggest complaint of these patrons is poor lighting at stops. Tucker focuses mainly on “vulnerable” patrons, namely women, children, seniors, and disabled people. She notes that most cases of violence involved in public transportation do not occur in busses or trains, but on peoples’ commutes to and from these modes of public transportation. Tucker bases her findings on data collected by several different national surveys and speaks on the similarities of their findings. By posing older women and other less defensible patrons as a victim to their feelings of danger, Tucker frames improvements to transit stops as an investment in the quality of life of transit users. This report poses an interesting focus on the importance of lighting public areas. Boston has a particularly high number of crimes that occur in MBTA stations and bus stops. These crime rates are even higher in neighborhoods that are home to low income families purely because of peoples’ greater dependency on the MBTA in these neighborhoods. The article mentions how many vulnerable patrons opt for taking buses rather than walking to their destinations because it is the lesser of two dangerous situations at night; the same can likely be said about Boston citizens who are commuting to and from outer neighborhoods like Roxbury Crossing, Jamaica Plain, and Dorchester (which is coincidentally where many students choose to live as well).

Gil-De-Castro, A., Moreno-Munoz, A., Larsson, A., Rosa, J. D., & Bollen, M. (2012, May). LED street lighting: A power quality comparison among street light technologies. Lighting Research and Technology, 45(6), 710-728. doi:10.1177/1477153512450866

This is a technical paper published by the Society of Light and Lighting, and composed by a team of PhDs in the department of computer architecture, and electronics and electronic technology at the University of Cordoba. Naturally, this is a very technical heavy reading with a very methodical approach describing their research. The authors make good use of tables and visual representations of their findings, which is helpful in understanding the text accompanying their work. This article describes the ‘how’ involved in upgrading street lighting. Like most, they expand upon LED lights in particular, and consider LEDs the only option for retro fitting street lights. However to give credibility to their study, they also engage the reader in the idea of electromagnetic and electronic ballast assisted HPS lamps as a possible adaptation that could be made to classic city street lights. The also experimented with an installed LED street lamp, studying the current, voltage, wattage, and harmonics. This in order to understand how a LED lamp would function as a street light and what possible shortcomings it may have. They also reference other studies similar to compare to their own conclusions. This is a science heavy research paper that discusses important points involved in the viability of LEDs. It communicates on a technical level exactly why LEDs can be challenging to implement and what exactly makes transitioning to LEDs city wide such a high capital expense. However it is presents an airtight argument for LEDs over the existing HPS lamps.

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