Markup in the Writing Classroom

Genre: bib

Student id: h15

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      <?xml-model href="../schema_3302.rng" type="application/xml" schematypens=""?><!--the second line in the document associates the schema, so be sure not to change it-->
    <!--required header includes metadata about the assignment (title, author, version)-->
    <title>Writing Project 1: Producing Annotated Bibliographies, a Problem-Seeking
    <version n="1" date="2016-07-13"/>
    <!--note that the date must be YYYY-MM-DD for the document to be valid-->
    <problem_stmt>Virtual reality (VR) is a technology that places users in an interactive
            simulated environment. Today VR is used beyond entertainment purposes to treat various
            psychological conditions, including social anxiety and PTSD, by simulating situations
            that trigger targeted symptoms. Expanding upon this, VR can be leveraged in
            motor-related rehabilitation. Computer engineering focuses on the development of
            physical devices that reliably gather and relay data as well as software that interprets
            and displays data in meaningful ways. In relation to VR motor-related therapy, the
                discipline is responsible for syncing users’ movement virtually to a viewable
            device, interpreting the results based on specified criteria, adjusting settings
            accordingly, and iterating procedures. It is also concerned with the cost efficiency and
            comfort of such devices. Game development can be considered a branch of CS (or perhaps
            its own discipline) and is the coding and design (level layout, adjusted difficulty
            settings, art assets) of games. Motor disorders afflict patients from various age groups
            from children with cerebral palsy to post-stroke elders. Thus, it is important to tailor
            the virtual environments to the individual to encourage interactivity, especially for
            children and those with attention deficiencies. Additionally, designing and adjusting
            difficulty settings in relation to performance is vital to prevent frustration or
            boredom and further promote self-engagement. Leveraging VR in motor-related
            rehabilitation has a promising outlook in that it engages users, provides real-time
            feedback and progress tracking, cuts setup times, is tailored to the patient, and can
            potentially move therapies to a home setting.</problem_stmt>
    <!-- Citation 1 -->
    <citation n="1" style="APA"><author n="1">Lange, B.</author>, <author n="2">Koenig,
                S.</author>, <author n="3">Chang, C.</author>, <author n="4">Mcconnell, E.</author>,
                <author n="5">Suma, E.</author>, <author n="6">Bolas, M.</author>, &amp; <author n="7">Rizzo, A.</author> (2012). <title level="a">Designing informed game-based
                rehabilitation tasks leveraging advances in virtual reality</title>. <title level="j">Disability and Rehabilitation</title>, 34(22), 1863-1870.
      <background type="source">This article provided by USC, Institute for Creative
                Technologies, in the journal Disability and Rehabilitation, </background>
      <summary type="general">highlights the benefits and challenges of implementing VR in
                therapeutic strategies. VR can be implemented in various ways. Sometimes head-mounts
                are used to display the view to the user and adjust in relation to his orientation.
                Body-tracking sensors can also provide a wider range of interactivity. Other times
                6-wall rooms with projections called Cave Automatic Virtual Environments (CAVEs) are
                implemented to provide a less restrained, though more expensive, experience.
                Additionally, VR allows for varied perspectives by offering 1st or 3rd person views,
                which may give new insights to how patients respond to therapy. VR in therapy has
                long been hindered by costs of equipment, but commercial technology, such as the Wii
                and Kinect provide affordable ways to introduce rehabilitation to a home setting. </summary>
      <summary type="interpretation">Still, commercial technologies were not initially
                intended for therapeutic practices; therefore, they must be adjusted accordingly;
                else they may promote improper motor skills.</summary>
      <relevance type="value_stmt">This source is relevant in that it provides a good
                introduction to VR in therapy and some associated problems.</relevance>
    <!-- Citation 2 -->
    <citation n="2" style="APA"><author n="1">Merians, A.</author>, <author n="2">Jack, D.
            </author>, <author n="3">Boian, R.</author>, <author n="4">Tremaine, M.</author>,
                <author n="5">Burdea, G.</author>, <author n="6"> Adamovich, S.</author>, <author n="7">Reece, M.</author>, &amp; <author n="8"> Poizner, H.</author> (2002). <title level="a">Virtual Reality–Augmented Rehabilitation for Patients Following
                Stroke</title>. <title level="j">Physical Therapy</title>, 82(9),
      <background type="source">This article from Physical Therapy, a journal that focuses on
                improving patient care, </background>
      <summary type="general"> presents a case study following three elderly (50’s, 80’s)
                post-stroke patients who participated in a 2-week long VR motor training program. </summary>
      <summary type="approach">For 3.5 hours each training day, the patients practiced 4 VR
                exercises to test their hand’s: (1) range of movement, measured by how much of a
                image they could uncover by “wiping” their hand across the screen; (2) speed of
                movement measured by how fast they could close their hand; (3) finger fractionation
                measured by their ability to depress a single key on a keyboard piano; and (4)
                strength of movement measured by how much they could resist pressure applied to
                their glove. </summary>
      <summary type="general">At the end of the program, each improved in all tested areas
                though those with more severe defects improved less so. Overall, the patients
                responded positively to the exercises but reported frustration over the length,
                response times, and clarity in information of the display. </summary>
      <summary type="interpretation">This implies that clear, real-time feedback is vital in
                keeping users engaged. </summary>
      <relevance type="value_stmt">The results of the study show the promise of VR in
                improving mobility in damaged upper extremities, even for elderly patients. However,
                a larger patient population is needed to test the validity of the findings
                accurately. </relevance>
    <!-- Citation 3 -->
    <citation n="3" style="APA"><author n="1">Sveistrup, H.</author> (2004). <title level="a">Motor rehabilitation using virtual reality</title>. <title level="j">Journal of
                NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation</title>, 1(1), 10.
      <background type="author">Sveistrup is a professor at the University of Ottawa Brain and
                Mind Institute at the University and focuses on traumatic brain injury, innovative
                rehabilitation techniques, and motor learning. </background>
      <summary type="general"> The article discusses various studies and different VR
                strategies implemented by them. These include strategies targeting the following:
                balance and posture using a fixed bicycle, posture platform, flat VR display, and
                video-capture systems from VividGroup’s GX or IREX; locomotion using GaitMaster2 (a
                technology that gives the user the illusion of forward movement), and a virtual
                environment to track walking trajectories; and upper/lower extremities using a
                CyberGlove (motion capturing glove) and Rutgers ankle/hand systems; exercise and
                pain tolerance with a mounted bicycle and virtual scene. </summary>
      <relevance type="application">The article is important in that it cites technologies
                already used in VR motor-related rehabilitation, which can be implemented in other
                settings. </relevance>
      <relevance type="value_stmt">Additionally, it references real cases in which the
                technology showed promise compared to regular therapies.</relevance>
    <!-- Citation 4 -->
    <citation n="4" style="APA"><author n="1">Barrett, N.</author>, <author n="2">Swain,
                I.</author>, <author n="3">Gatzidis, C.</author>, &amp; <author n="4">Mecheraoui,
                C.</author> (2016). <title level="a">The use and effect of video game design theory
                in the creation of game-based systems for upper limb stroke rehabilitation</title>.
                <title level="j">Journal of Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies
                Engineering</title>, 3(0). doi:10.1177/2055668316643644</citation>
      <background type="source">This article was published to the Journal of Rehabilitation
                and Assistive Technologies Engineering this year.</background>
      <summary type="general">Rehabilitating limb exercises often involve meaningful
                repetitive motion to induce neural plasticity and to strengthen neural connections
                associated with normal motor function. This piece discusses game design principles
                vital in keeping patients motivated during these exercises. </summary>
      <summary type="approach">Basic principles include a clear presentation of goals,
                rewards, low learning curves, and motivational feedback. Adjusting difficulty in
                response to improvement encourages users to continue play for mastery. Additionally,
                use of a simple interface (muted colors, low sounds) is important <q>to avoid
                    cognitive overload and fatigue.</q> Multiplayer introduces a social aspect that
                promotes collaboration and increases interest. It also induces competition, which
                engages and entertains the user. Presenting varied tasks, tailoring genres, and
                introducing storylines helps to break the monotony of the exercises. </summary>
      <relevance type="application"> Overall, the layout of games in therapy is important, as
                patients are more likely to exert effort continually, thus inducing neural
                plasticity, if they are immersed in the activity.</relevance>
      <relevance type="value_stmt">This sets therapeutic VR practices apart from regular
    <!-- Citation 5 -->
    <citation n="5" style="APA"><author n="1">Koenig, S.</author>, <author n="2">Ardanza,
                A.</author>, <author n="3">Cortes, C.</author>, <author n="4">Mauro, A. D.</author>,
            &amp; <author n="5">Lange, B.</author> (2013). <title level="a">Introduction to Low-Cost
                Motion-Tracking for Virtual Rehabilitation</title>. <title level="j">Biosystems
                &amp; Biorobotics Emerging Therapies in Neurorehabilitation</title>, 287-303.
      <background type="source">An article in Emerging Therapies in Neurorehabilitation
                (Biosystems &amp; Biorobotics), a collection on the technological advances and
                practices in neuro-rehabilitation, </background>
      <summary type="general">this piece discusses how the Microsoft Kinect, a platform that
                uses depth-sensing cameras, can be used in motor-related rehabilitation. Flexible
                Action and Articulated Skeleton Toolkit (FAAST) is a middleware that maps body
                movements from the Kinect skeleton to controls in games and VR applications. This
                allows clinicians to map desired movements and adjust sensitivities to existing
                games to match the patient’s needs and preferences. MiddleVR is another middleware
                platform that can be integrated with the Kinect to integrate with custom games
                created in Unity, an open-source game development engine. </summary>
      <relevance type="application">Overall, this piece shows techniques on using middleware
                with the Kinect to adjust existing games or integrate custom games for mobile
                rehabilitation. Northeastern’s ReGame VR Lab is in the process of conducting studies
                on children with cerebral palsy by creating tailored VR Kinect video games, so the
                techniques in this article can be applied in a similar setting.</relevance>


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