Markup in the Writing Classroom

Genre: bib

Student id: s23

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      <?xml-model href="../schema_3302.rng" type="application/xml" schematypens=""?><!--the second line in the document associates the schema, so be sure not to change it-->
    <!--required header includes metadata about the assignment (title, author, version)-->
    <title>Project 1: Annotated Bibliography</title>
    <version n="1" date="2016-07-03"/>
    <!--note that the date must be YYYY-MM-DD for the document to be valid-->
    <problem_stmt> Mechanical engineers are involved in nearly all industries that require any
            kind of problem solving; this ranges anywhere from infrastructure and public works, to
            pharmaceuticals and product development. There are many engineering companies in Boston
            in particular that are addressing issues of energy and sustainability. The problem that
            particularly concerns me is city lighting. Companies like Philips Color Kinetics have
            taken steps to make Boston more beautiful with the implementation of colorful LEDs in
            the Prudential Tower and the Zakim Bridge; and even Northeastern has made steps to go
            greener by installing energy efficient lights from Digital Lumens in many of their
            campus buildings. Both these companies hire many mechanical engineers to develop
            efficient LEDs that will last several times longer than a standard incandescent light,
            will be resilient in bad weather, and will be much easier to install, monitor, and
            replace. Mechanical engineers are partically
            well prepared for this kind of work because of their understanding of a range of
            engineering disciplines and general expertise in material properties and designing for
            manufacturability. and Right now, many of the less commercialized parts of Boston are
            still lit by old high pressure sodium lamps(?) which are not nearly as energy efficient, are much
            less bright, and are more apt to burn out and leave sections of road in the dark. In a
            city full of families and college students, and with a public transportation system that
            leaves much to be desired, street lighting can be major issue. Having more street lights
            that are strategically placed in residential and high traffic areas would increase the
            communities sense of security and pride in their city.</problem_stmt>
    <citation style="APA"><author n="1">Ylinen, A.</author>, <author>Tahkamo, L.</author>, <author>Puolakka,
                M.</author>, &amp; <author>Halonen, L.</author> (2011, July). <title>Road lighting
                quality, energy efficiency, and mesopic design - LED street lighting case
                study.</title> General OneFile. Retrieved July 11, 2016. </citation>
      <background type="author"> This article written by doctoral candidates from Aalto
                University for publication through the Illuminating Engineering Society discusses
                the practicalities of transitioning to LED lighting for city street lights.
                <!-- can include <q> element(s) for quoted material --></background>
      <summary type="approach"> The approach to the discussion of LEDs in this journal is very
                subjective. It discusses mainly the affect that LEDs would have on visibility for
                drivers and pedestrians alike at night. The effectiveness and energy conscious
                benefits of LEDs is undeniable, however Ylinen discusses the capital investments
                that may dissuade a city from transitioning to new street lights. This article goes
                into cost analysis, installation obstacles, and health impacts of LED street lights.
                <!-- can include <q> element(s) for quoted material --></summary>
      <relevance type="application"> This article is helpful to anyone interested in gaining
                an in-depth and scientific understanding of how LEDs work and what exactly makes
                them so much better to look at. It also gives a relatively concise description of
                the financial benefits a city could reap from installing LEDs. The authors of this
                article remained impartial and factual. </relevance>
    <citation style="APA"><author>Welsh, B.</author> (2008). <title>Effects of improved street
                lighting on crime.</title> Campbell Systematic Reviews. doi:10.4073/csr.2008.13 </citation>
      <background type="author"> Authors Brandon Welsh and David Farrington of The Campbell
                Collaboration report on the collective findings of dozens of bibliographic
                databases, literature review, and street lighting studies conducted by leading
                researchers worldwide. They discuss the rigorous selection process they implemented
                in selecting data worth reporting on and openly disclose their methodological
                assessment of each study they included.<!-- can include <q> element(s) for quoted material --></background>
      <summary type="general"> Welsh and Farrington explore thirteen case studies that
                considered crime rates and safety as relating to street lighting. Their conclusion
                states that improved lighting in cities has a significant impact in making cities
                safer both during the day and at night. However, cities will be unlikely to make
                efforts to add lighting to roads unless there are other incentives, such as traffic
                safety. <!-- can include <q> element(s) for quoted material --></summary>
      <relevance type="application">This source is beneficial for anyone exploring a more
                global perspective on the connection between street lighting and decreased crime
                rates because of the broad range of case studies explored. It is also a good source
                of examples because of the details Welsh and Farrington included about each of their
                case studies. This journal article is an effective summary aimed for public
                officials to gain a concise and inarguable understanding of the effects of street
                lights on public safety.</relevance>
    <citation style="APA"><author>Samuels, R.</author> (1995). <title>Defensible Design and
                Management- University Campuses Final Report.</title> Department of
            Employment, Education and Training, Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved July 11, 2016. </citation>
      <background type="source"> Samuels conducted an investigation on factors contributing to
                safety on university campuses for the department of Employment, Education and
                Training for the Commonwealth of Australia in order to understand what steps could
                be taken to increase the feelings of security of their students.<!-- can include <q> element(s) for quoted material --></background>
      <summary type="approach"> Although lighting is only one factor that Samuels says
                contributes to student safety on campus, he expands on it quite heavily. Samuels
                takes into account the general feeling of safety and security in pedestrians since
                college campuses are so heavily travelled by walkers, not vehicles. He states, <q>“
                    The circumstances contributing most to feelings of insecurity, overall, were
                    walking to colleges and poor lighting”</q> (4). Samuels investigates four
                colleges in Australia where he surveys students and listens to their concerns,
                adding a human aspect into this study and accentuating how relevant abundant outdoor
                lighting is to students.<!-- can include <q> element(s) for quoted material --></summary>
      <relevance type="application">Samuels doesn’t actively explore better ways of lighting
                public areas, but instead focuses on the importance of adding lighting to public
                spaces. He highlights the characteristics of areas that cause people to be concerned
                at night. This argument is particularly relevant to students as many of the points
                Samuels makes are very relatable to Northeastern’s campus.</relevance>
    <citation style="APA"><author>Tucker, L. E.</author> (2003, March). <title>Safer Stops for
                Vulnerable Customers.</title> National Center For Transit Research (NCTR). Retrieved
            July 11, 2016. </citation>
      <background type="source"> Lisa Tucker, a research associate for the National Center for
                Transit Research (NCTR) wrote this text for the U.S. Department of Transportation in
                order to express the NCTR’s concerns about the lack of lighting and safety
                precautions at public bus stops.
                <!-- can include <q> element(s) for quoted material --></background>
      <summary type="general"> Tucker takes a professional approach discussing the feelings of
                insecurity expressed by public transit patrons because of the lack of upkeep of bus
                stops. The biggest complaint of these patrons is poor lighting at stops. Tucker
                focuses mainly on “vulnerable” patrons, namely women, children, seniors, and
                disabled people. She notes that most cases of violence involved in public
                transportation do not occur in busses or trains, but on peoples’ commutes to and
                from these modes of public transportation. Tucker bases her findings on data
                collected by several different national surveys and speaks on the similarities of
                their findings. By posing older women and other less defensible patrons as a victim
                to their feelings of danger, Tucker frames improvements to transit stops as an
                investment in the quality of life of transit users.
                <!-- can include <q> element(s) for quoted material --></summary>
      <relevance type="application"> This report poses an interesting focus on the importance
                of lighting public areas. Boston has a particularly high number of crimes that occur
                in MBTA stations and bus stops. These crime rates are even higher in neighborhoods
                that are home to low income families purely because of peoples’ greater dependency
                on the MBTA in these neighborhoods. The article mentions how many vulnerable patrons
                opt for taking buses rather than walking to their destinations because it is the
                lesser of two dangerous situations at night; the same can likely be said about
                Boston citizens who are commuting to and from outer neighborhoods like Roxbury
                Crossing, Jamaica Plain, and Dorchester (which is coincidentally where many students
                choose to live as well).</relevance>
    <citation style="APA"><author>Gil-De-Castro, A.</author>, <author>Moreno-Munoz, A.</author>,
                <author>Larsson, A.</author>, <author>Rosa, J. D.</author>, &amp; <author>Bollen,
                M.</author> (2012, May). <title>LED street lighting: A power quality comparison
                among street light technologies.</title> Lighting Research and Technology, 45(6),
            710-728. doi:10.1177/1477153512450866 </citation>
      <background type="author"> This is a technical paper published by the Society of Light
                and Lighting, and composed by a team of PhDs in the department of computer
                architecture, and electronics and electronic technology at the University of
                Cordoba. <!-- can include <q> element(s) for quoted material --></background>
      <summary type="approach"> Naturally, this is a very technical heavy reading with a very
                methodical approach describing their research. The authors make good use of tables
                and visual representations of their findings, which is helpful in understanding the
                text accompanying their work. This article describes the ‘how’ involved in upgrading
                street lighting. Like most, they expand upon LED lights in particular, and consider
                LEDs the only option for retro fitting street lights. However to give credibility to
                their study, they also engage the reader in the idea of electromagnetic and
                electronic ballast assisted HPS lamps as a possible adaptation that could be made to
                classic city street lights. The also experimented with an installed LED street lamp,
                studying the current, voltage, wattage, and harmonics. This in order to understand
                how a LED lamp would function as a street light and what possible shortcomings it
                may have. They also reference other studies similar to compare to their own
                conclusions. <!-- can include <q> element(s) for quoted material --></summary>
      <relevance type="application"> This is a science heavy research paper that discusses
                important points involved in the viability of LEDs. It communicates on a technical
                level exactly why LEDs can be challenging to implement and what exactly makes
                transitioning to LEDs city wide such a high capital expense. However it is presents
                an airtight argument for LEDs over the existing HPS lamps. </relevance>


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