Markup in the Writing Classroom

General elements:


(reference) defines a reference to another location; can contain any URI


(paragraph break) empty element, indicates a new paragraph of text, use to delineate individual paragraphs where necessary, such as in background or answer material


(note) contains a note made on the text intended to provide additional information or comment upon the text; requires a @type attribute and a @resp (responsible party) attribute with your id for peer reviewer note


(quote) quoted text.


Visuals are any variety of in line imagery used to break up long lengths of text, and/or aid in the understanding of a topic. Comics, pictures and graphics are a few of the possible visuals that can be used [requires @url].

Annotated bibliography:


(annotated bibliography) container element for writing project 1; includes a problem statement and at least one group of citation and annotation elements


(annotation) must follow a citation element; contains required background, summary, and relevance element(s)


(author) contains author of work (either assignment of source) [use @n for ordering; use @xml:id for assignment authoring]


(background information) anything that could help provide context or information with regard to the source you are using; can contain text, and optional q elements [requires @type element]


(citation) a properly cited document [use @n attribute for ordering; @style attribute for citation style]


(problem statement) contains the problem statement for which the citations and annotations are relevant


(reference) defines a reference to another location; can contain any URI


(relevance) where the source can be used and why the text may be pertinent to the problem statement; can contain text [requires @type attribute]


(summary) summarization of the source, can be general information, interpretive summary, and/or summary of the research approach; can contain text, notes, and optional q elements [requires @type element]

'Edutainment' Blogs:


Root element for Science Blog genre


Analogies should be used to better illustrate important and difficult to understand topics put forth by the other elements.


Major points of interest relating to the topic [takes @n attribute].


A multipurpose list element. [required @type; values can be: "generic" or "roadmap"]


Lists any common misconceptions the public has about the topic, or includes quoted material from the community that highlights the existing (false) notions about the answer; optional [takes @n attribute]


'background' and ‘answer’ are best broken into modular digestible sections consisting of several paragraphs. ‘section_header’ should be titled in a way such that the following paragraphs either work in concert to make the point specified by ‘section_header’, or answer a question put forth by ‘section_header’.


Visuals are any variety of in line imagery used to break up long lengths of text, and/or aid in the understanding of a topic. Comics, pictures and graphics are a few of the possible visuals that can be used [require @url].


Hyperlink around a phrase that directs to a source or resource, can be found throughout the post depending on author's preference


(paragraph break) empty element, indicates a new paragraph of text, use to delineate individual paragraphs where necessary, such as in background or answer material


The sectionintroduces the main topic.


The question or topic that we are trying to answer or simplify to a general audience.


Fundamental theory and concepts involved (such as gravity, matter and energy, fluid dynamics, acid-base reactions, etc.). Global element, required in background, suggested in answer section.


Body of text that moves towards the answer of the question, presenting topics, ideas, analogies, and explanations that lead towards the ultimate conclusion


Contains sources the author used to answer the question. Can include optional <citation> sub-elements


Specific scientific principles that are directly relevant to the explanation of the question. Ex. A description of the chemistry behind acid-base reactions. [takes @n attribute]


An in-depth reply to the question proposed in the “background” section. Typically, the author will use common vernacular and devices such as analogies and visuals in order to clearly convey concepts to readers.


A conclusion that sums up what was just explained. It acts as a concise response to the question asked in the “background” section

Feasibility Reports:


(Feasibility Report) container element for writing project 2. Contains any number of pages. Cannot contain text by itself. Can only contain text in pages.


Representing any page of the feasibility report. [required @type attribute] Available types: @ttl, @tbl_contents, @exec_sum, @pre_req_ana, @fsb, @sccs_crt, @dsn, @cost, @rpt, @rsk_ana, @fnc, and @conc.

    possible @type values:

  • ttl: (Title) contains a mandatory Title, date of submission, and list of contributors. Logo and sub-title optional.
  • tbl_contents: (Table of Contents) contains any number of elements.
  • exec_sum: (Executive Summary) [Requires @type attribute] a quick summary of the whole presentation. From these paragraphs you should be able to understand whether or not the author supports the project, the most critical limitations / benefits where applicable. Can use as a paragraph break.
  • pre_req_ana: (Preliminary requirements analysis) This page type contains the evaluation of the environment for the project before beginning it. Contains any number of elements.
  • fsb: (feasibility) This page type Contains any number of elements. Bulk of the total report.
  • sccs_crt: (Success criteria). This pages contains the pre-defined requirements for the project to be declared successful. Contains any number of elements. Easy to confuse with the page @pre_req_ana, or the preliminary requirements analysis. This page contains the technical aspects describing the actual project rather than the environment surrounding the project and it’s success.
  • dsn: (Design or Diagram). This type of page is a diagram or image that shows a quick highlight of the system / structure. Usually outline interconnecting parts. Must be an element with the url attribute.
  • cost: (Cost Estimates) The Cost estimates page contains any number of elements
  • rpt: (Report page) Not to be mistake with an estimate, this page is about outlining how you show or prove progress on your project and how you will report that progress. Examples include the medium / genre for your report. Who you are reporting too, and what deliverables you will have. Deliverables could include a tour a facility / physical project, or an interactive demo of software. Includes any number of elements.
  • rsk_ana: (Risk Analysis) chart/graphics/paragraph dedicated to covering certain risks and how your project will avoid them
  • fnc: (Financial) This page is for a detailed financing plan if necessary. May be covered already by previous sections if not as detailed. Examples for this page include:
  • conc: (Conclusion) The conclusion page consists of a body of writing that is three parts. It contains one of each of the following elements. This page should be very direct and to the point.


(Section) is an element for each listing in the [requires a mandatory @num attribute and an optional @lvl (level) attribute denoting its level in the hierarchy]. A element with @lvl=1 will be numbered with a roman numeral corresponding to its native @num attribute. A element which has @lvl=2 will be lettered corresponding to its native @num attribute (@num=1 shows A, @num=2 shows B, etc) and indented below its parent. A element @lvl=3 will be denoted with its native @num attribute and indented twice below its parent. Each use of a sub level begins again at @num=1.


(Application overview) a highlight of certain element of the project/idea. This can be anything from you/your team's goals to how it interacts with other products, projects, and systems. [requires an @type attribute, optional @title attribute]. Available types: obj (referencing a personal, team, social, or business objective), synergy (referencing the way your project will interact with any type of existing infrastructure), rls (referencing the any rules or regulations the project will encounter whether for better or worse).


(feasibility highlight) Body of this element is the general summary of this aspect of feasibility [required @type attribute and @num attribute] available types: @tcnl (technical), @econ (economic), @tfrm (timeframe), @socl (public reception), @suits (legality), or @envr (environmental)).


(requirement section) details a sections of requirements. Strictly related to the project’s components. For example an appropriate element would be “userinterface”, “Database/database interaction”, or “construction”. A element is simple an italicized and underlined above each of its requirement.


(requirement). This is a requirement. [required @num attribute, optional @title attribute]. Title will appear at the beginning of this element italicized followed by a colon.


The element represents an estimated cost [required @type attribute]. Available @types: inst (institutional), @envr (environmental), @lgl (legal), @fnc (financial).


(Timeline) The tmln element is an optional element design to provide a timeline entry [required @date (written in mm/dd/yyyy) and @num] attribute. Date will be highlighted in bold with the text following it. Each will have a line between them of blank space.


(financial highlight). [required @num, and @type attribute] example @types: @fund (Funding), @lns (loans), @exp (expenses), @brdn (Burden to company / organization).


This element is used to answer your thoughts on the question “Is it feasible” and why.


This element is used to identify the key conditions for feasibility. Such as meeting a timeframe or extended financial support. Maybe even address certain doubts on the feasibility.


This element summarizes the whole report.


(Reference) This element is global, and allows the user to include an outside source. Citation includes [Required @author, @title attribute]. Body consists of URL.

Public Initiative Proposals:





Who this proposal is directed towards/aiming to convince


(table of contents)


Section: Name of section of proposal


Brief synopsis of the project being proposed

    Brief synopsis of the project being proposed


Current Conditions: Information about the subject matter that establishes a need in the reader’s mind for the change suggested by the proposal


Subject History: relevant material that has lead to the current conditions or the current


General information providing context for the problem



Objective: What the purpose of the project is


Goal: Improvements that would be achieved upon completion of the objective.


Point of background requiring action and proposed solution


Action: Executable item that will lead to goal completion


Execution: Tactic employed to achieve goal


How the project will be achieved


Environmental: Initial and long-term implications or obstacles as they relate to the surrounding environment


Social: Initial and long-term implications or obstacles as they relate to members of the community


Economic: Initial and long-term financial implications of project compared to do-nothing alternative


Initial and long-term implications or obstacles in the implementation of the project


Conclusion: Brief description of the benefits potentially provided by the proposed project


References: List of cited works used in research

Cover Letters:


Container element for cover letter


Container element for applicants basic contact information


First and last name of applicant; necessary in both the signature and header of document


Container element for contact info, must be filled with at least one type of contact


Element for contact information, must include at least one attribute from an open list (with address, phone number, and email as suggestions)


Contains formal greeting to reader such as “Dear”, as well as an identifier for the intended audience


(Introductory paragraph) Container element for first paragraph of cover letter; has intent and proposition as necessary sub-elements but may contain other text as well as optional sub-elements, cover letter may only contain one introductory paragraph


Statement regarding the purpose of the cover letter


Statement of reason for applying for this particular or a job in this field, may include applicant's interests or passions in the field they are seeking a job in, optional sub-element in introductory paragraph


General statement for why applicant is deserving of job, closing statement for introductory paragraph


(Background Paragraph) Container element for paragraph including information about candidate experience, cover letter must include one or more background paragraphs


Container element for types of relevant experience talked about in cover letter, must include at least one attribute (school, work, personal)


Sub-element of experience, known languages of the applicant


Sub-element of experience, applicant skills, preferably ones that match skills listed in the job posting


Sub-element of experience, applicant accomplishments relevant to the job description


Sub-element of experience, applicant certification relevant to the job description


Sub-element of experience, known program languages of the applicant


(Closing Paragraph) Container element for compatibility and next step, mandatory element, cover letter must include (only) one closing paragraph


Sub-element to closing paragraph; briefly, why applicant fits into the company and what he or she has to offer. Must be first element in closing statement.


Sub-element to closing paragraph; Invitation to further discuss qualifications and details of position, closing statement for closing paragraph. Must come after compatibility statement.


Optional element for saying thank you to the reader for their time/consideration etc.


Mandatory element in cover letter, container element for signing off of cover letter; includes salutation and name.


Sub-element to signature; Sincerely, Best, Cheers, etc…